In The Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful.
Al-Kalaam (speech) is beneficially composed expression expressed with the rules (of Arabic lan-guage). Its parts are three: the ism (noun/name); the fi'l (verb/action); and the harf (particle/letter), which brings meaning. The ism (noun) is known by the khafd (genitive), by the tanween (nunation), by the prefixing of the letters alif and laam, and by the huruuf (particles) of khafd. They are min, ila, 'an, 'ala, fi, rubba, the letters ba, kaaf and laam; and the huruuf of oaths. They are the letters waw, ba and ta. The fi'l (verb) is known by qad, the letter sin, sawfa, and the feminine ta made voweless. The harf (particle) is that which neither the proofs of the ism nor the proofs of the fi'l apply.
Chapter Two: On the Inflection
The i’raab is the transformation of the ends of a word because of the different governing elements pre-fixing them - expressly or implicitly. Its parts are four: the raf' (nominative/indicative case), the nasb (accusative/subjunctive case), the khafd (genitive case) and the jazm (imperative/omitted case). From these the raf', the nasb and the khafd belongs to the al-asma' (plural of ism); they do not take jazm. And from these the raf', the nasb and the jazm belongs to the al-af'aal (plural of fi'l); they do not take khafd.
Chapter Three: On Knowledge of the Signs of the I’raab
The Raf’ (The Nominative/Indicative Case):
The raf' has four signs: the damma; the letters waw; alif: and nun. As for the damma it is the sign of raf' in four situations: the ism mufrad (the singular noun); the jam'u 'l-takseer (broken plural); the jam'u 'l-mu'anath as-saalim (sound feminine plural); and the fi'l mudaar'i (the present/future verb) which has nothing connected to its ending. As for the letter waw it is the sign of raf' in two situations: the jam'u 'l-mudhakar as-saalim (sound masculine plural); and in the five al-asma' (nouns). They are abuuka, akhuuka, hamuuka, fuuka, and dhu maal. As for the letter alif it is the sign of raf' in the tathniya (dual nouns) only. As for the letter nun it is the sign of raf' in the fi'l mudaar'i (present/future verb) when there has been connected to it the dameer tathniya (dual pronoun), the dameer jam'i (plural pronoun) or the dameer 'l-mu'anatha al-mukhaatiba (second person feminine pronoun).
The Nasb (Accusative/Subjunctive Case):
The nasb has five signs: the fat’ha: the letter alif; kasra: the letter ya; and the hadhfu'lnun (omission of the letter nun). As for the fat'ha it is the sign of nasb in three situations: in the ism mufrad; the jam'u takseer; and the fi'l mudaar'i when it is prefixed with a naasib (word or particle governing the accusa-tive/subjunctive case) and when there is nothing connected to the verbs ending. As for the letter alif it is the sign of nasb in the five asma'u; for example, "Ra'itu abaaka wa akhaaka" ("I saw your father and your brother."), and what resembles that. As for kasra it is the sign of nasb in the jam'u 'l-mu'anath as-saalim. As for the letter ya it is the sign of nasb in the tathniya and in the jam'u. As for the hadhfu'l-nun it is the sign of nasb in the af'aal which are normally made raf' by the retention of the nun.
The Khafd (Genitive Case):
The khafd has three signs: the kasra: the letter ya: and the fat'ha. As for the kasra it is the sign of khafd in three situations: in the ism mufrad munsarif (the fully conjugated singular noun); the jam'u takseer munsarif (the fully conjugated broken plural); and the jam'u mu'anath as-saalim. As for the letter ya it is the sign of the khafd in three situations: in the five asmaa'; the tathniya; and the jam'u. As for the fat'ha it is the sign of khafd in the ism which is not conjugated.
The Jazm (Apocopate/Imperative Case):
The jazm has two signs: the sukuun: and the hadhfu. As for the sukuun it is the sign of jazm in the fi'l mudaar'i whose ending is proper. As for the hadhfu it is the sign of jazm in the fi'l mudaar'i whose end-ing is mu'atil (carried); and in the af'aal which are normally made raf' by the retention of the nun.
Section On the Mu'aribaat (Inflected Words):
The mu'aribaat are in two parts: those inflected by the harakaat (vowel movements); and those inflected by huruuf (letters).
Those which are inflected by the harakaat are four kinds: ism mufrad; jam'u takseer; jam'u 'l-mu'anath as-saalim; and fi'l mudaar'i which has nothing connected to its ending. All of them are: made raf' by the damma; made nasb by the fat'ha; made khafd by the kasra; and made jazm by the sukuun. There are three things not included in that: the jam'u 'l-mu'anath as-saalim which is made nasb by kasra; the ism which is not conjugated is made khafd by fat'ha; and the fi'l mudaar'i whose ending is mu'atil (carried) is made jazm by the hadhfu'l-nun at its ending.
Those which are inflected by the huruuf are four kinds: tathniya; jam'u 'l-mudhakar as-saalim; the five asmaa'; and the (five) af'aal. As for the tathniya it is: made raf' by the letter alif; and made nasb and khafd by the letter ya. As for the jam'u 'l-mudhakar as-saalim it is: made raf' by the letter waw; and made nasb and khafd by the letter ya. As for the five asmaa' they are: made raf' by the letter waw; made nasb by the letter alif; and made khafd by the letter ya. As for the five af'aal they are: made raf' by the letter nun; and made nasb and jazm by the hadhfu'l-nun.
Chapter Four: On the Af’aal (Verbs)
The af’aal are three: maadi (past-tense); the mudaar'i (present/future-tense); and the amr (com-mand/imperative-tense). For example: daraba ("he hit"); yadribu ("he is hitting"/"he will hit"); and adrab ("hit!").
The maadi always has fat'ha at its end. The amr always has jazm at its end. The mudaar'i is what has at its beginning one of the four prefixes gathered together when you say, "anaytu" ("I have attained.") It is always in raf' until you prefix to it a naasib (particle which makes nasb) or a jaazim (particle which makes jazm).
For the nawaasib (plural for naasib the particles which make nasb) are ten. They are: 'an; lan; 'idhan; kay; laam of kay; laam of al-juhuud (negation/repudiation); hatta; the response with the letters fa and waw; and aw.
The jawaazim (plural of jaazim) are eighteen. They are: lam; lammaa; alam; laam of the amr (impera-tive) and the du'a (request/invocation); laa in the nafyii (negation); ‘in; maa; man; mahmaa; idh maa; ayy; matta; 'ayaana; 'ayna; 'anna; haythumaa; kayfamaa; and 'idhaa exclusively in poetry.
Chapter Five: On the Marfu'aat al-Asmaa’ (Nouns in Raf')
The marfu'aat are seven. They are: the faa'il (doer); the maf'uul (object) whose faa'il is not named; the mubtada' (subject) and its khabr (predicate); the ism of kaana and its sisters; the khabr of 'inna and its sisters; the taabi' (dependent) to the marfu'aat which are four things: the na'at (adjective); the 'atf (con-junction); tawqeed (intensifying emphasis); and the badal (substitute).
Chapter Six: On the Faa'il (Doer)
The faa'il is the ism in raf' whose fi'l is mentioned before it. It is in two parts: dhaahir (manifest noun) and mudmar (suffixed personal pronoun). The dhaahir is like your saying: "qaama Zaydun"; "yaquumu Zaydun"; "qaama Zaydaan"; "yaquumu Zaydaan"; "qaama Zayduun"; "yaquumu Zayduun"; "qaama ar-rijaalu"; "yaquumu ar-rijaalu"; "qaamat Hindun"; "taquumu Hindun"; "qaamat'l-Hindaan"; "taquumu'l-Hindaan"; "qaamat'l-Hindaatu"; "taquumu'l-Hindaatu"; "qaamat'l-hunuudu"; "taquumu'l-hunuudu"; "qaama akhuuka"; "yaquumu akhuuka"; "qaama ghulaamy"; "yaquumu ghulaamy"; and what resembles that. The mudmar is like your saying: "darabtu"; "darabnaa"; "darabta"; "darabti"; "darabtumaa"; "darabtum"; "darabtunna"; "daraba"; "darabat"; "darabaa"; "darabuu"; and "darabna".
Chapter Seven: On the Maf'uul (Object) Whose Faa'il Is Not Named
It is the ism in raf' whose faa'il is not mentioned with it. When the fi'l is maadi, make its first letter damma and make the letter before the last letter kasra. If (the fi'l) is mudaar'i, make the first letter damma and make the letter before the last letter fat'ha.
The maf'uul is in two parts: dhaahir and mudmar. For the dhaahir is like your saying: "duriba Zaydun"; "yudrabu Zaydun"; “'ukrima 'Amru”; and "yukramu 'Amru". The mudmar is like your saying: “duribtu”; “duribnaa”; “duribta”; “duribti”; “duribtumaa”; “duribtum”; “duribtunna”; “duriba”; “duribat”; “duribaa”; “duribuu”; and “duribna”
Chapter Eight: On the Mubtada' (Subject) and the Khabr (Predicate)
The mubtada' is the ism in raf' which is free of any 'awaamil lafdhiyya (expressed governing agent). The khabr is the ism in raf' which is attributed to (the mubtada'). It is like your saying: "Zaydun qaa'imun"; "az-Zaydaan qaa'imaan"; and "az-Zayduun qaa'imuun". The mubtada' is in two parts: dhaahir and mudmar (independent pronoun). The dhaahir is what was mentioned previously. The mudmar are twelve. They are: 'anaa; nahnu; 'anta; 'anti; 'antumaa; 'antum; 'antunna; huwa; hiya; humaa; hum; hunna. It is like your saying: “'Anaa qaa'imun"; "Nahnu qaa'imuun" and what resembles that.
The khabr is in two parts: mufrad (simple predicate) and ghayru mufradin (complex predicate). The mufrad is like your saying: "Zaydun qaa'imun"; "az-Zaydaan qaa'imaan"; and "az-Zayduun qaa'imuun". The ghayru mufradin are four things: the jaar (preposition); the majruur (word governed by the jaar); the dharf (adverb); the fi'l with its faa'il; and' the mubtada' with its khabr. It is like your saying: "Zaydun fi ad-daari"; "Zaydun 'indaka"; "Zaydun qaama 'abuuhu"; and "Zaydun jaariyyatuhu dhaahibatun".
Chapter Nine: On the 'Awaamil (Governing Agents) Which Prefix the Mubtada' and the Khabr
The 'awaamil which prefix the mubtada' and the khabr are: the verb kaana and its sisters; 'inna and its sisters; and dhanna and its sisters.
As for kaana and its sisters, verily they make the ism into raf' and make the khabr into nasb. They are: kaana; amsaa; 'asbaha; 'ad'haa; dhala; baata; saara; laysa; maa zaala; maa anfaka; maa fata'a; maa baraha; maa daama; and what is conjugated from them. Like (your saying): "kaana – yakuunu - kun"; and “'asbaha -yasbahu -'asbah”. You say: "kaana Zaydun qaa'iman" and what resembles that.
As for 'inna and its sisters, verily they make the ism into nasb and make the khabr into raf'. They are: 'inna; 'anna; lakin; ka'anna; layta; and la'ala. You say: “'inna Zaydan qaa'imun” and "layta 'Amran shaakhisan". The meaning of 'inna and 'anna is for emphasis/stress (tawkeed); lakin is for correc-tion/rectification (istidraak); ka'anna is for resemblance/comparison (tashbeeh); layta is for wish/desire (tamanaa); and la'ala is for hope/expectation (tarajaa).
As for dhanantu and its sisters, verily they make the mubtada' and khabr into nasb due to the fact that they are both maf'uul to them. They are: dhanantu; hasibtu; khiltu; za'amtu; ra'aytu; 'alimtu; wajadtu; 'itikhadhtu; ja'altu; and sam'itu. You say: "dhanantu Zaydan muntaliqan" and "khiltu al-hilaala laa'ihan" and what resembles that.
Chapter Ten: On the Na`at (Adjective)
The na'at follows the man'uut (ism described) in its raf', nasb, khafd, ta'reef (definite), and tankeer (in-definite). You say: "qaama Zaydun'l-'aaqilu"; "ra'aytu Zaydan'l-'aaqila"; "marartu bi Zaydin'l-'aaqili". The ma'rifa (definite noun) are five things: ism mudmar (pronoun) - like 'anaa and 'anta; the ism 'alam (proper name) - like Zayd and Mekka; the ism mubham (demonstrative pronoun) - like hadhaa, hadhihi and ha'ulaa'i; and the ism which has in it the letters alif and laam - like ar-rajulu, and al-ghulaamu; and whatever is placed in conjunction with one if these four. The nakira is every ism which encompasses a whole species without specifying anyone from another; roughly it is any ism to which the prefixing of the letters alif and laam applies - like for example ar-rajul and al-ghulaam.
Chapter Eleven: On the `Atf (Conjunction)
The huruuf of the ‘atf are ten. They are: the letters waw and fa; thumma; aw; 'am; 'imaa; bal; laa; lakin; and hatta in some conditions. If you conjunct a word to a marf'u (ism in raf'), then make it raf'; or to a mansuub (ism in nasb), then make it nasb; or to a makhfuud (ism in khafd), then make it khafd; or to a majzuum (ism in jazm), then make it jazm. You say: "jaa'a Zaydun wa 'Amrun"; "ra'aytu Zaydan wa 'Amran"; "marartu bi Zaydin wa 'Amrin"; "Zaydun lam yaqum wa lam yaq'ud".
Chapter Twelve: On the Tawkeed (Emphasis)
The tawkeed follows the word emphasized (muwakkadi) in being raf', nasb, khafd, and
ta'reef. It occurs in known expressions as: an-nafs; al-'ayn; kullu; 'ajma'u; and that which
follows 'ajma'u. They are 'akta'u; 'ibta'u; and 'absa'u. You say: "qaama Zaydun nafsuhu;
"ra'aytu al-qawma kullahum; and marartu bi'l-qawmi 'ajma'een.
Chapter Thirteen: On the Badal (Substitute)
When an ism is substituted for an ism, or a fi'l is substituted for a fi'l then it follows it in all of its inflections. It is in four parts: the substitute of one thing for another thing; the substitute of part for the whole; the substitute of the content; the substitute of the mistake. It is like your saying: "ja'a Zaydun 'akhuuhu"; “'akaltu ar-ragheefa thuluthahu”; “nafa'anii Zaydun 'ilmuhu”; and “ra'aytu Zaydan al-farasa”. You originally desired to say “al-farasa”, but made a mistake and substituted "Zayd" instead.
Chapter Fourteen: On Mansuubaat (Nouns in Nasb)
The mansuubaat: are fifteen. They are: the maf'uulu bihi (object of the verb); the masdar (infinitive); the dharf az-zamaan (adverb of time); the dharf 'l-makaan; the haal (state); the tamyeez (specification); the mustathnaa (exception); the ism laa (ism governed by laa); the munaadii (vocative); the khabr (predicate) of verb kaana and its sisters; the ism of the particle 'inna; the maf'uul min 'ajlihi (object on account of which something is done); and the maf'uulu ma'ahu (object where with); and the (word) following the mansuub which are four things: the na'at; the atf; the tawkeed; and the badal.
Chapter Fifteen: On the Maf`uulu bihi (Object of the Verb)
It is the ism in nasb upon which the action of the fi'l occurs. Like (your saying): "darabtu Zaydan"; and "rakabtu al-Farasa". It is in two parts: dhaahir (manifest) and mudmar (implied). The dhaahir is that which has been previously mentioned. The mudmar is in two parts: muttasilun (connected) and munfasilun (disconnected). The muttasilun are twelve. They are like your saying: “darabanii"; “darabanaa"; “darabaka"; “darabaki"; “darabakumaa"; “darabakum"; “darabakunna"; “darabahu"; “darabahaa"; "darabahumaa"; “darabahum"; “darabahunna". The munfasilun are twelve. They are like your saying: “'iyyaaya"; “'iyyaanaa"; “'iyyaaka"; “'iyyaaki"; “'iyyaakumaa”; “iyyaakum”; “iyyaakunna”; “'iyyaahu”; “'iyyaahaa”; “'iyyaahumaa”; “iyyaahum”; “iyyaahunna”.
Chapter Sixteen: On the Masdar (Infinitive)
The masdar is the ism in nasb which comes third in the conjugation of the fi'l. Like your saying: "daraba"; "yadribu"; and "darban". It is in two parts: lafdhiyyun (expressed) and ma'anawiyyun (mean-ing). When its expression conforms with its fi'l, then it is lafdhiyyun. Like your saying: "qataltuhu qatlan". When its meaning conforms to its fi'l, then it is ma'anawiyyun. Like your saying: "jalastu qu'uudan" and “qumtu wuquufan” and what resembles that.
Chapter Seventeen: On the Dharf az-Zamaan (Adverb of Time) and the Dharf ‘l-Makaan (Adverb of Place)
The dharf az-zamaan is the ism in nasb denoting time with the implication in the meaning of the particle fii (in/at/during/on/about) - like: “al-yawma”; “al-laaylata”; “ghudwatan”; “bukratan”; “saharan”; “ghadan”; “'atamatan”; “sabaahan”; “masaa'an”; “'abadaan”; “'amadaan”; “heenan”; and what resembles that. The dharf 'l-makaan is the ism in nasb with the implication in the meaning of the particle fii (in/at/during/on/about) - like: “'amaama”; “khalfa”; “quddaama”; “waraa'a”; “fawqa”; “tahta”; “'inda”; “ma'a”; “'izaa'a”; “hidhaa'a”; “tilqaa'a”; “hunaa”; “thumma”; and what resembles that.
Chapter Eighteen: On the Haal (State/Condition)
It is the ism in nasb which explains what is uncertain regarding the true situation of a thing. Like (your saying): "ja'a Zaydun raakiban"; "rakibtu al-farasa musrajan"; "laqeetu 'Abdallahi raakiban" and what resembles that. The haal is always nakira (indefinite) and is only at the completion of the kalaam (speech). And the companion word to which it belongs is always ma'rifa (definite).
Chapter Nineteen: On the Tamyeez (Specification/Distinction)
The tamyeez is the ism in nasb which explains what is uncertain regarding the essence of a thing. Like your saying: "tasabbaba Zaydun 'araqan"; “tafaqqa'a Bakrun shahman”; "taaba Muhammadun nafsan"; “'ashtaraytu” ishreena ghulaaman”; "malaktu tis'eena na'ajatan"; and "Zaydun 'akramu minka 'aban wa 'ajmalu minka wajhan". It is always nakira and always comes at the completion of the kalaam (speech).
Chapter Twenty: On the Istithnaa'u (Exception)
The huruuf of istithnaa'u are eight. They are: illa; ghayru; siwan; suwan; sawa'un; khala; 'adaa; and haashaa. The mustathnaa (words made an exception) by illa are made nasb when the kalaam is affirma-tive and complete. Like your saying: "qaama al-qawmu illa Zaydan" and "kharaja an-naasu illa 'Amran". When the kalaam is negative and complete, it is permissible to make it the badal (substitute) or to make it nasb by means of the 'istithnaa'u. Like your saying: "qaama al-qawmu illa Zaydun" and "...illa Zaydan". When the kalaam is defective, it (the word made an exception) is dependent upon the 'awaamil (governing element). Like your saying: "maa qaama illa Zaydun"; "maa darabtu illa Zaydan"; and "maa marartu illa bi Zaydin".
As for the mustathnaa by ghayr, siwan, suwan, and sawa'un, they are always in genitive. As for the mustathnaa by khala, 'adaa, and haashaa, it is permissible to make them nasb or genitive. Like your saying: “qaama al-qawmu khala Zaydan wa Zaydin”; “'adaa 'Amran wa ' Amrin”; and “haashaa Bakran wa Bakrin”.
Chapter Twenty-One: On Laa
Realize, that laa makes the nakiraat (indefinite nouns) without tanween into nasb, when it immediately precedes the nakira and when the laa is not repeated. Like (your saying): "laa rajula fii ad-daari". When it (the laa) does not immediately precede it (the indefinite noun), it is then necessary to make it (the indefinite noun) raf' and it is necessary to repeat the laa. Like (your saying): "laa fii ad-daari rajulun wa laa 'imra'atun". When it (the laa) is repeated, it is permissible to utilize it or to eliminate it. If you desire, you can say: “laa rajula fii 'd-daari wa laa 'imra'atun”. Or if you desire, you can say: “laa rajulun fii 'd-daari wa laa 'imra'atun”.
Chapter Twenty-Two: On the Munaadii (Vocative)
The munaadii are five kinds: the mufrad 'alam (proper singular noun); the nakira maqsuuda (designated indefinite noun); the nakira ghayru maqsuuda (undesignated indefinite noun); the mudaaf (governing noun of a genitive construction) and that which resembles the mudaaf. As for the mufrad 'alam and the nakira maqsuuda they are both based upon the damma without the tanween. Like (your saying): "yaa Zaydu"; "yaa rajulu". The remaining three are always only in nasb.
Chapter Twenty-Three: On the Maf'uul Min 'Ajlihi (Object On Account of Which Something is Done) - It is the ism in nasb which is mentioned as an explanation of the cause of the occurrence of the fi'l. Like (your saying): "qaama Zaydun 'ijlaalan li 'Amrin" and "qasadtuka 'ibtighaa’a ma'aruufika".
Chapter Twenty-Four: On the Maf’uul Ma'ahu (Object Where With)
It is the ism in nasb which is mentioned to explain the object with which the fi'l is done. Like (your saying): "ja'a al-amiru wa 'l-jaysha"; “'astawaa al-maa'u wa 'l-khashabata". As for the khabaru of the verb kaana and its sisters and the ism of 'inna and its sisters - they have been previously discussed in the section on the marfu'aat. And the same applies for the words which follow, they are also discussed there.
Chapter Twenty-Five: On the Makhfuudaat ‘l-Asmaa’I (Genetive of the Nouns)
The makhfuudaat are three: those made khafd by the harf; those made khafd by being in construction to a noun and by following a noun in khafd. As for those made khafd by the harf, for it is that which is made khafd by: min; 'ila; 'an; 'ala; fii; rubba; the letters ba; kaaf; and laam; the huruuf of oaths: the letters waw; ba; and ta; rubbu; mudh; and mundhu. As for those made khafd by being in construction to a noun, for this is like your saying: “ghulaamu Zaydin”. This is in two parts: that which has the implication of the particle laam – like: “ghulaamu Zaydin”; and that which has the implication of the particle min – like “thawbu khazzin”, “babu saajin”, “khaatimu hadeedin”, and what resembles that.
And Allah Knows Best